rapport de mission d'observation indépendante de l'application de la loi forestière dans une concession du domaine forestier



A false vision of the sea
Originally current problems, there is a misunderstanding of what the sea. We are used to draw it unlimited fish and seafood we like to eat. Because the ocean floors are invisible to us, we imagined that they were limitless. However, fishing is a sampling activity on a stock: the more fish, the less there's fish to breed and renew the initial stock. When we pass a critical threshold, the existing mass fish longer enough simply to repeat the initial mass ... It was the collapse of the stock.

An economy that despises the oceans
Because we have forgotten this fact, we practice industrial fishing which depletes the seabed. Illegal fishing is growing, as if the sea had to be a lawless zone. Bycatch, that is to say, organisms caught during fishing operations, which did not target, such as sponges, sharks, dolphins and turtles, can represent up to 80% of the catch types fishing ... probably 20 million tonnes a year returned to the sea, the equivalent of a fish caught in four. Aquaculture (carnivore, salmon, shrimp ...) pollutes the environment, destroys mangroves and does not solve the problem of overfishing, because it takes fishing of wild fish to feed farmed fish.

In the name of growth and freedom of movement, we accept the constant increase in maritime traffic that pollutes the seas, but not building the navigation rules. We talk about the need to reduce our carbon emissions, but the depletion of fossil fuel resources causes a race deposits: the oil companies drill more and further, deeper and deeper and neglect the risk of major environmental disasters.

Scientists may well sound the alarm, leave policies continue this massacre. Manufacturers have carte blanche. The short-term interests determine policy decisions.

An open dump
Pollution due to our activities to complete our seas and oceans a gigantic garbage. There are of course pollution due to the passage of petroleum and chemical or oil rigs. But 80% of the pollutants found in the seas and oceans come from our onshore activities. These are sewage, plastics, industrial waste, pesticides and agricultural fertilizers, radioactive waste. Toxic heavy metals found in the sea as well as mercury and persistent organic pollutants as dangerous as PCBs and DDT, not to mention the amount of oil spilled. Our waste is such that there is in the North Pacific an area larger than France where wastes turn spiral to infinity. Added to this are noise pollution that seriously threaten marine mammals.

Climate disruptions
This is another consequence of human activities. The most obvious manifestation is the melting ice, resulting rising sea: 17 cm during the twentieth century, perhaps a meter by 2100. Some island states (such as the Maldives and Micronesia) disappear . Coastal zones (including Europe) would be flooded. Other phenomena are of equal concern: the increase in temperature, changes in ocean currents, acidification of water or salinity changes, development of invasive species ... The oceans would then become new climatic disturbances vectors. It's a vicious circle: climate change seriously affect the oceans, in turn these changes balances of our seas in turn accelerate climate change.

A threatened biodiversity
This unlimited exploitation of our oceans, and more generally of our planet, has direct and obvious effects on marine biodiversity. Many species are extinct or endangered, many fish are threatened. The best known are the whales and dolphins, sharks, cod and bluefin tuna. But the list is longer. These are 80% of commercial species that are overexploited or beside overexploitation. When a species is threatened when a threat of stock collapse, the consequences affect the entire ecosystem and impact the entire food chain.
At the current rate, there will be more fish in the oceans by 2048. What will we do that day? We eat jellyfish? This question has already arisen for the billion people on earth who are totally dependent on seafood for their animal protein intake. The destruction of marine biodiversity is also a food safety issue for humans.


Abandon an outdated model of fishing
Our policy of fishing is archaic. First, because it considers the resources quantitatively. As if the fish came out of the chains of a plant that could increase yields.
We must realize that fish are part of an ecosystem, they are interlinked with other species, their habitats must be protected and that we can not fish all juveniles and all breeding simultaneously. They need time to reproduce and grow.
We need to stop managing purely quantitative, species by species catch levels until the collapse (bluefin tuna, cod, etc.). It is necessary to have a comprehensive approach and taking into account the ecosystem. When fishing a particular fish is a food chain that is disturbed.

Apply the precautionary principle
It is time to listen and take into account the warnings from the scientific community and civil society. We must preserve our marine resources. In the absence of certainty or irrefutable evidence, we must apply the precautionary principle. This means taking measures that would prevent any loss of species, but also any loss of fisheries. This requires that governments, the European Union stopped subsidizing industrial fishing, to defend in international conventions, negotiate quotas the highest possible for their fishermen.

A question of political will
The solutions exist, they are relatively simple, there is no reason to postpone decisions, it just takes political courage. The most distressing is that often the international goals are ambitious: With the Convention on Biodiversity that restoration objectives of biodiversity and ecosystems but also creation of marine protected areas At the United Nations with restoration goals at sustainable levels of fish stocks. The European Union with the objective of reducing the levels of fish stocks to sustainable levels by 2015.
Everyone agrees on the need to move to an ecosystem approach, but national interests, short-term economic challenges, the weight of industrial lobbies or lack of political will, make the courageous decisions are always postponed.
The problem is not to set ambitious goals and commit to save our oceans, but to do it!

Fight against illegal fishing
When rules exist, they just are not respected. A fish out of four comes from pirate fishing. An international action plan must be implemented to end this scandal. The authorities need to better control the fish arrivals. Ports must refuse to launder illegal fish. Supermarkets, fish markets and must refrain from reselling stolen goods. Finally, developing countries should be supported to improve the fight against illegal fishing that depletes their marine resources.

What we do

For marine reserves
AOE calls for the creation of a global network of marine reserves, covering 40% of our oceans. The aim is to conserve marine ecosystems. This means prohibit fishing, mining and waste disposal. No extraction, no damage would be possible. AOE has established a global map of these marine reserves to be created. The sites would be the preferred breeding areas for fish and vulnerable habitats (coral reefs, seamounts) and areas with rare species and / or over-exploited (such as bluefin tuna and whales). Successful examples already exist in New Zealand, the Azores, in Corsica. Their beneficial effects are proven after a few years of existence. These reserves are a good tool for managing marine resources.

Locate Us

Côte d'Ivoire
18 BP 2706 Abidjan 18
Abidjan - Côte d'Ivoire
Tel (+225) 45 49 08 16
      (+225) 65 27 27 29

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